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The Temples of Tamil Nadu 泰米尔纳德邦寺庙

Tamil Nadu is popularly called as the ‘Land of Temples’ for it is the home to almost 33,000 ancient temples. 泰米尔纳德邦是公认的“寺庙之乡”,坐拥将近33000座古寺。

Tamil Nadu is the southernmost state of India with area of 130,058 square km and a population of about 72 million. The state is popularly called as the ‘Land of Temples’; for it is the home to almost 33,000 ancient temples out of which some are at least 2,000 years old. The temples of Tamil Nadu are the finest examples of the artistic excellence of the Tamil people who built great architectures with fine carvings. In ancient times, the temples were the centres of culture, art and knowledge. Cave temples possess important examples of Tamil carving, and some temples built in Pre-Christian era still exist. The Kings of the Pandya (550 BC – 1345 AD), Chera (400 BC – 1314 AD), Chola (301 BC – 1279 AD), Pallavas (275-882 AD) and Nayaka (1529 – 1736 AD) dynasties made the most significant contributions to the development of this art. With the emergence of these dynasties, the Hindu religion thrived, though Buddhism and Jainism were also spreading in India. Some of the more popular temples include the Rameshwaram Temple, Thanjavur temple, Mahabalipuram temple, Kanchipuram temple, Chidambaram temple, Meenakshi Temple and Ekambareswarar Temple attract hordes of devotees and tourists from different parts of the country. 泰米尔纳德邦位于印度最南端,面积达130,058 平方公里,人口7200万。被称作“寺庙之乡”的泰米尔纳德邦拥有将近33000座古寺,部分寺庙有2000多年的历史。这些雄伟的寺庙和精妙绝伦的雕刻,是泰米尔人民艺术成就的绝佳典范。在古印度,寺庙是文化、艺术和知识的中心。石窟寺庙是泰米尔雕刻艺术的重要代表,公元前建造的部分寺庙也留存至今。潘地亚王朝(公元前550年--公元1345年)、哲罗王朝(公元前400年--公元1314年)、朱罗王朝(公元前301年--公元1279年)、巴拉瓦王朝(275—882年)和纳雅克王朝(1529—1736年)的君主对该艺术的发展做出了巨大的贡献。尽管佛教和耆那教也在印度各地传播,但是随着这些王朝的兴起,印度教进入繁盛时期。拉梅斯瓦兰庙、坦贾伍尔庙、马哈巴利普兰庙、坎奇普庙、齐巴丹拉姆庙,米纳克西庙、埃甘巴拉纳塔庙等颇受欢迎的寺庙吸引了来自全国各地的信徒和游客。

Photo图片1: Airavateshwara Temple (built in the Chola style by King Raja Raja II in the 14th century) 艾拉瓦德斯瓦拉神庙(拉贾拉贾王二世在14世纪下令修建的朱罗风格神庙):

Tamil rulers used to depict ancient Hindu stories. The carvings were highly detailed, with complex work shadowing the main figure in high relief. Temples were built using materials like bricks, wood and stone – especially granite, which is relatively common in Tamil Nadu. Early temples, around 700 AD, were initially built with mortar and bricks. Then people started using stone for the construction of the great monuments. The Pandya kings were also great builders, and constructed many huge temples in Madurai, the Temple City. Each and every temple in Madurai speaks to the architectural skill of the Pandya kings. The Meenakshi Temple is the quintessential example of  Pandyan architecture. 泰米尔统治者运用雕像来叙述古老的印度教传说。这些雕刻十分细腻,通过繁杂的工序,用高浮雕呈现神像。寺庙的建筑材料包括砖块、木材和石头,以花岗岩为主,这在泰米尔尤为普遍。公元700年前后的早期寺庙,一开始都使用灰泥和砖块。后来,人们开始使用石头建造大型纪念碑。潘地亚王朝的君主们也都是建筑高手,在如今的寺庙之都——马杜赖建造起了许多大型神庙。这里的每一座寺庙都展现出潘地亚君主的建筑才能。纳克西神庙是潘地亚建筑举足轻重的典范。

Photo 图片2: Madurai Meenakshi Temple (built in Pandyan style by King Kulashekara)马杜赖米纳克西神庙(君主库拉塞凯罗下令修建的潘地亚风格神庙):

The Chola Dynasty produced some of the best stone architectural marvels in the world. Opulent grandeur is characteristic of Chola art. They maintained a standard style of decorating the huge structures with small sculptures, and sculpting these structures required immense amounts of labor and resources. Stylistically, people were portrayed with rounded faces. Certain poses became very common during the late Chola period, and torsos were depicted with more detail than before. The Gangaikonda Chola Temple exhibits many archetypal elements of Chola style, with noses being prominent, emblems decorated with flames on the two upraised fingers, and discuses facing forward. The Chola kings were also the greatest patrons of the bronze arts. Shiva Nataraja, the Lord of the Dance, in Chidambaram is a classic example of Chola art. 朱罗王朝在石制建筑方面取得了非凡的成就。富丽堂皇是朱罗艺术的特点,标准化风格贯穿始终,构造庞大,饰有精巧的雕像。雕刻这些作品需要耗费大量的劳力和资源。在样式上,人物雕塑面型圆润,一些姿势在后朱罗时期尤为流行,对躯干的刻画也比以往更加细腻。康该贡达`索拉培雷姆神庙展现了朱罗风格的许多典型元素,如鼻子突出,两只举起的手指上饰有火焰,圆盘朝前。朱罗王朝的君主们也是青铜艺术最重要的赞助者,齐丹巴拉姆庙里的舞神湿婆雕像是朱罗王朝艺术的典范。

Photo图片3: Chidambaram Temple (dedicated to Lord Nataraja or Shiva - Lord of Dance)齐丹巴拉姆神庙(供奉舞神湿婆):



The Great King, Raja Raja Chola-I, was an admirer and patron of art and architecture. He is not only remembered for his skill at warfare, but also for his contributions to the construction of Periya Kovil in Tanjavur (Tanjavur Big Temple). The temple is 1002 years old and retains its aesthetic value even today. Periya Kovil is the largest temple in India, and a grand and beautiful example of ancient architecture. Great stone carvings can be seen in major temples, such as the Brihadeeshwara Temple (the Big Temple) in Tanjavur built during the Chola Dynasty. The Dravidian style was almost perfected during this period. 朱罗王朝的拉贾拉贾一世赞赏并赞助艺术和建筑。他不仅以军事才能闻名后世,同时对坦贾武尔Periya Kovil 寺庙(坦贾武尔大寺庙) 的修建做出了巨大贡献。这座古寺历经1002年仍焕发着美学价值。作为印度最大的寺庙,Periya Kovil是古印度建筑壮美的典范。游客们在主庙宇里可饱览精妙绝伦的雕刻,如朱罗王朝在坦贾武尔修建的布里哈迪斯瓦拉神庙(大神庙)。达罗毗荼风格在这一时期臻于完美。

Photo图片4: Brihadeshwara temple also called the "Big Temple" completed 1000 years in year 2010 6:布里哈达斯瓦拉神庙又被称作“大神庙”,到2010年已有1000年的历史。



The sculptural and architectural history of Tamil Nadu includes temples built by Pallava kings in the Dravidian style. The Pallava kings maintained their traditional skills throughout the dynasty. The Kanchi temples and the rock-cut cave temples of Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) are built in the Pallava style, and they are known as the Seven Pagodas. Pallava carvings evidence high-quality craftsmanship. The Pallava kings built three types of shrines: monoliths, cave temples and structural temples. Some of the finest examples of Pallava carvings are found in Mamallapuram, where there are abundant sculptural compositions. The expertise of Pallavas can be seen in masterpieces such as the carvings in Mahisasura Mardhini cave, Arjuna’s Penance, the Anantasayana relief, and the great Pancha Rathas. 巴拉瓦王朝君主修建的达罗毗荼风格寺庙也是泰米尔纳德雕刻和建筑史上的瑰宝。巴拉瓦君主始终坚持着传统的工艺。达罗毗荼风格的坎奇庙和玛玛拉普兰石窟神庙是公认的印度七大佛塔之一。巴拉瓦王朝的雕刻展现出高水准的技艺,巴拉瓦君主建造了三种神庙:独石寺(由一块巨石雕琢而成)、石窟寺和结构性寺庙。游客可在玛玛拉普兰石窟欣赏到大量精美的的雕塑作品,堪称巴拉瓦雕刻的典范。守护神庙、“阿周那的苦行图”浮雕、阿难陀衍那浮雕和五车庙等杰作也充分体现了巴拉瓦工艺。

Photo图片5: Elephant Relief at Mahabalipuram马哈巴利普兰的大象浮雕:

The shore temple of Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) is a UNESCO world heritage site. The place is also famous for the monolithic rathas (chariots). The huge carving, Arjuna’s Penance, is a giant open-air bas relief with breathtaking craftsmanship. The Pallava kings were also good at sculpting animals such as deer, cunning cats, and elephant herds. The sculptors of the Pallava period excelled at sculpting elephants with a vibrant, wild spirit. Pallava scultors also depicted the human form in an idealized manner with a relaxed naturalism in the poses. Within Pallava art, the human body is thinned, the chest is widened, and the nose is flattened. Some other common traits of Pallava art include egg-shaped faces, double chins and minimal ornamentation. 马哈巴利普兰海岸寺被联合国教科文组织列入世界文化遗产名录,这里也因由巨石雕琢而成、呈战车形态的寺院拉扎司闻名于世。巨型雕刻——《阿周那的苦行图》是露天浅浮雕。巴拉瓦君主也是雕刻鹿、狡猾的猫和象群的高手。巴拉瓦时期的雕刻家精于刻象,将大象刻画成充满野性与活力的生灵。他们以舒展的自然主义手法赋予人物形象理想化的姿势。在巴拉瓦艺术中,人物形象瘦削、胸围宽大、鼻子扁平。巴拉瓦艺术的其他常见特征还包括鹅蛋脸形、双下巴和尽可能少的装饰。

Photo图片9: The Mahabalipuram Temple (built in Pallava style)马哈巴利普兰寺(巴拉瓦风格)


The sculptures became more stylized during the period of Vijaya Nagar rulers. The carvings of the Vijay Nagar period included elaborate ornamentation, and expressionless faces with stiff poses. The noses are sculpted sharply and prominently and figures are depicted with protruding stomachs, an archetypal feature of the Vijayanagar period. 在维杰纳加尔统治时期,雕像呈现非写实手法,装饰讲究、人物面无表情、姿势僵硬、尖鼻突出和肚子外凸成为了维杰纳加尔统治时期雕像的典型特征。

For more information on Tamil Nadu Tourism, please visit: http://tamilnadutourism.org/