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  • International Day of Yoga

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Yoga 瑜伽

Yoga (Sanskrit: योग) is a generic term for the physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India with a view to attain a state of permanent peace. Yoga is a discipline to improve or develop one’s inherent power in a balanced manner. It offers the means to attain complete self-realisation. The literal meaning of the Sanskrit word Yoga is ’Yoke’. Yoga can therefore be defined as a means of uniting the individual spirit with the universal spirit of God. The term "yoga" first appeared in the Hindu scripture - Katha Upanishad (400 BC) where it is defined as the steady control of the senses, which along with cessation of mental activity, leads to the supreme state.


瑜伽(梵语:योग)是发源于古印度的身体、精神和心灵上的训练或修炼的通称,旨在达到永久平静的境界。瑜伽是一种修炼,能增强、平衡人的内在力量,并实现充分的自我认识。梵文瑜伽的字面意思是联合,因此瑜伽可以被定义为个人意志和神的意志相结合。瑜伽一词最早出现在印度教经文——《迦陀奥义书》(公元前400年)中,被定义为对感官的稳定控制,同时思想活动静止,达到至高无上的境界。


One of the most detailed and thorough expositions on the subject is the "Yoga Sūtras" of Patañjali. According to Maharishi Patanjali, Yoga is the suppression of modifications of the mind. In the specific sense of Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, yoga is defined as citta-vṛtti-nirodhaḥ (the cessation of the perturbations of the mind). This is described by Patanjali as the necessary condition for transcending discursive knowledge and to be one with the divinely understood "spirit" ("purusha"): "Absolute freedom occurs when the lucidity of material nature and spirit are in pure equilibrium." In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali indicates that the ultimate goal of yoga is a state of permanent peace or Kaivalya. 

帕坦伽利的《瑜伽经》是最为详细深入的瑜伽经典之一。圣哲帕坦伽利认为,瑜伽是对摇摆不定的心智的抑制。在帕坦伽利的《瑜伽经》中,瑜伽的特定意义是思想的万千变化得到了克制。帕坦伽利将其描述为超然于杂乱无章的认知之外,拥有真正灵魂(神我)的必要条件:当对物质本质的洞彻和精神达到完美平衡时,完全的自由才能实现。在《瑜伽经》中,帕坦伽利指出,瑜伽以达到永恒平静的境界或解脱为最终目的。

[Source: Ananda Spa & Retreat, Rishikesh] 【来源:瑞斯凯斯阿南达水疗&灵修度假村】

Apart from the spiritual goals the physical postures of yoga are used to alleviate health problems, reduce stress and make the spine supple in contemporary times. Yoga is also used as a complete exercise program and physical therapy routine.

Yoga is universal in character for practice and application irrespective of culture, nationality, race, caste, creed, sex, age and physical condition. Neither by reading the texts nor by wearing the garb of an ascetic, one can become an accomplished Yogi. Without practice, no one can experience the utility of Yogic techniques nor can realise of its inherent potential. Only regular practice (sadhana) creates a pattern in body and mind to uplift them. It requires keen desire on the part of the practitioner to experience the higher states of consciousness through training the mind and refining the gross consciousness.

除了精神修炼的目标,瑜伽的体姿还用于缓解健康问题、减轻压力、同时使脊柱柔软。瑜伽还被用作整套的锻炼项目和理疗常规项目。不论文化、国籍、种族、种姓、信条、性别、年龄和身体状况有何不同,瑜伽均可施展应用。无需阅读秘籍或穿着苦行者的装束,人人都可以成为技艺高超的瑜伽师。但缺乏耐心的人无法体会到瑜伽技巧的作用,也无从领会其内在的潜力。唯有定期练习(灵修)才能为身体和精神创造一套模式,促进身心健康。修炼者需保持强烈的渴望,通过训练心智和改进迟钝的意识,体验意识的更高境界。

All paths of Yoga (Japa, Karma, Bhakti etc.) have healing potential to shelter out the effects of pains. However, one especially needs proper guidance from an accomplished exponent, who has already treaded the same track to reach the ultimate goal. The particular path is to be chosen very cautiously in view of his aptitude either with the help of a competent counselor or consulting an accomplished Yogi.

各种瑜伽(如冥想瑜伽、业瑜伽和信瑜伽)有减缓疼痛的疗效。然而,技艺高超且已通过某种方法达到终极目标的瑜伽大师提供的恰当指导对瑜伽修炼者来说必不可少。瑜伽修炼者需要在足以胜任的咨询师或瑜伽士的帮助下,根据其天资谨慎选择特定的修炼方式。


Types of Yoga 
瑜伽种类

Japa Yoga: To concentrate one’s mind on divine name or holy syllable, mantra like ’OM’, through repeated recitation or remembrance.

冥想瑜伽:集中注意力,不断重复、回想神的圣名或神圣的音节,唱诵OM等。

Karma Yoga: Teaches us to perform all actions without having any desire for their fruit. In this sadhana, a Yogi considers his duty as divine action, perform it with whole-hearted dedication but shuns away all desires.

业瑜伽:教导我们应采取无私忘我的行动。在成就法中,瑜伽士将他的职责视为神圣的行动,全心全意地履行职责,避免任何欲望。

Gyana Yoga: Teaches us to discriminate between self and non-self and to acquire the knowledge of one’s spiritual entity through the study of scriptures, company of Saints and practices of meditation.

智瑜伽:教导我们如何区分自我和非我,并通过学习经典,与圣人为伍、练习冥想获得对心灵的认识。

Bhakti Yoga: is a system of intense devotion with emphasis on complete surrender to divine will. The true follower of Bhakti Yoga is free from egoism remains humble and unaffected by the dualities of the world.

信瑜伽:鼓励热切的忠诚,强调完全皈依神的旨意。信瑜伽的修炼者不为利己主义所扰,在世界的二元性面前保持谦卑,不改其心。


Raja Yoga: is popularly known as “Ashtanga Yoga” is for all-round development of human beings. These are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi.

王瑜伽:又被普遍称为阿斯汤加瑜伽,旨在促进人的全面发展。修行方式包括禁制、内制、体式、调息、制感、专注、冥想和三摩地。

Swara Yoga: is the Science which is about the realisation of cosmic consciousness, through the awareness/ observation then control/ manipulation of the flow of breath in the nostrils. Swara Yoga involves the systematic study of the breath flowing through the nostril (or Swara) in relation to the prevailing phases of the Sun, Moon, time of day and direction. It is the association of the breath in relation to the activities or phases or positions of the Sun, Moon, Planets, Seasons, Time of day, with the physical and mental conditions of the individual and then taking the appropriate action according to these subtle relations.

斯瓦拉瑜伽:通过意识/观察,然后控制/操控鼻孔中的气流领悟宇宙之学。斯瓦拉瑜伽系统研究鼻孔气流(或斯瓦拉)如何依照普遍的阳相、月相、一天中不同时刻和方向变化。斯瓦拉瑜伽将与太阳、月亮、行星的活动或位置、季节、一天中不同时刻息息相关的气息与个人身体和精神状态结合起来,然后根据这些微妙的联系采取合适的行动。

Kundalini Yoga: is a part of Tantric Tradition. Since the dawn of creation, the Tantrics and yogis have realised that in this physical body, there is a potential force residing in Muladhara Chakra, the first of seven Chakras. The seat of Kundalini is a small gland at the base of the spinal cord. In the masculine body it is in the perineum between the urinary and excretory organs. In the female body its location is at the root of the uterus in the cervix. Those people who have awakened this supernatural force have been called Rishis, Prophets, Yogis, Siddhas and other names according to the time, tradition and culture. To awaken the Kundalini, you must prepare yourself through yogic techniques such as Shatkriya, Asana, Pranayama, Bandha, Mudra and Meditation. Awakening of Kundalini results in an explosion in the brain as the dormant or sleeping areas start blossoming like flowers.

昆达利尼瑜伽:密宗传统的一部分。在该种瑜伽诞生之初,密宗大师和瑜伽士已经意识到在人的身体中,有一股潜在的力量伏于七大脉轮之一的海底轮。蟠龙位于脊髓根部的一个小腺。在男性体内,它位于泌尿和排泄器官之间的会阴处。在女性体内,则位于子宫颈内子宫的根部。唤醒这种超自然力量的人在不同时代、传统和文化中被称为圣人、先知、瑜伽士、成就者等。为了唤醒蟠龙,你必须通过瑜伽的六种洁净法、体式、调息、收术法、契合法和冥想等技能做好准备。唤醒蟠龙将引起脑内爆发,因为蛰伏或休眠的区域将如花朵绽放。

Nadi: As described by Yogic texts, Nadis are flow of energy which we can visualize at the psychic level as having distinct channels, light, colour, sound and other characteristics. The entire network of nadis is so vast that even yogic texts differ in their calculations of the exact number. Reference in the Goraksha Sataka or Goraksh Samhita and Hatha Yoga Pradipika place their number at 72,000; emerged from the navel center- the Manipura Chakra. Of all the thousands of nadis, Susumna is said to be the most important. The Shiva Swarodaya enumerates ten major nadis which connect to the ‘doorways’ leading in and out of the body. Of these ten, Ida, Pingala and Sushumna are the most important, they are the high voltage wires which conduct the energy to the substations or Chakras situated along the spinal column.

经脉:在瑜伽经典的描述中,经脉即能量流动,人们在通灵层次可以看到其呈现清晰的通道、光、色、声及其他特征。经脉的整个网络是如此庞大,就连不同瑜伽经典在计算精确数量时都有所不同。文献Goraksha 经(又称Goraksh集)和哈他瑜伽之光认为其总量为72,000,从肚脐中心——脐轮形成。在这成千的经脉中,中脉被认为最为重要。文献Shiva Swarodaya列举了10个主要经脉,与身体的出入口相连。在这10条经脉中,左脉、右脉和中脉最为重要。作为高电压通道,它们将能量传送到变电站即沿脊柱分布的脉轮。

Yoga Centers in India 
印度瑜伽中心


[Source: SwaSwara Retreat, Kerala]  [来源:喀拉拉邦SwaSwara度假村

There are many yoga centers in India, providing everything from in depth courses to flexible drop-in classes. As the style of yoga and approach to teaching varies at each center, it is important to give proper thought to one’s needs before applying. Mentioned below are a few yoga centers which are listed in no particular order. 

印度瑜伽中心繁多,既提供深入课程,也提供安排灵活的体验课程。由于各个中心有不同的瑜伽类型和教学方式,在申请前仔细考虑自身需求颇为重要。以下提供一些瑜伽中心链接,排序不分先后。

 

BKS Iyengar Yoga   艾杨格瑜伽学院

K. Pattabhi Jois Astanga Yoga Institute  K. Pattabhi Jois 阿斯汤伽瑜伽学院

Krishnamacharya Yoga Mandiram  克里希那马查亚瑜伽学院

Parmarth Niketan  Parmarth Niketan瑜伽学院

Satyananda Yoga 萨特亚南达瑜伽学院

Yoga Institute Mumbai 孟买瑜伽学院

Sivananda Yoga 斯文南达瑜伽学院

Other Sources: 其他资源:

Yoga Retreats in India 印度瑜伽度假村